Timely pruning and shaping the crown of a plum tree is not an easy, but very important task for the preservation of the garden. Plum care is needed not only in spring and autumn. Summer pruning brings undeniable benefits to the plant. The gardener should know why, when and how to carry out the pruning procedure in the summer.
Why do you need summer pruning of plums
Often novice gardeners neglect pruning plums in the summer, considering this a waste of time and effort. The main purpose of summer pruning is to increase the yield of the tree. This is achieved by removing unnecessary interlacing of the branches. Without pruning, the plum begins to suffer from:
- exposure to unfavorable temperatures;
- the appearance of shaded areas that interfere with the development of fruits;
- the emergence of new branches stops.
In such a situation, the tree can get sick and die. Why should pruning be done in summer? In what the advantages of this procedure during the growing season:
- you can easily determine the degree of crown density. The tree is covered with leaves;
- you can immediately see the branches that did not take root and died for various reasons. This is not always obvious in the spring;
- summer pruning prevents disease from spreading throughout the garden.
How to prune a plum in summer: visual instructions. Trimming scheme, trimming techniques
Before pruning branches, stock up on the necessary tools. You need a sharpened knife. There are special saws and secateurs on sale. With their help, you can quickly get a high-quality smooth cut and not harm the tree.
You can get information about garden saws in this video:
There should be a garden pitch at hand. The healing of the cut after treatment with pitch is fast. It is noticed that in summer, pruning plums requires extra care. After removal, all branches must be immediately burned.
The "light" summer pruning scheme depends on the shape of the plum crown and aims to maintain it.
Important! It is impossible to fully form and rejuvenate the plum tree in summer.
The gardener should know what are the forms of the plum tree crown. This will prevent mistakes, preserve the appearance of the tree and its yield when pruning plums in the summer:
Such a tree not only bears fruit, but also serves as a decorative function. Especially often a plum with such a crown is planted along fences.
There are two pruning techniques:
They can be done in different ways:
- "Cut to ring" - in the case when the branch needs to be deleted;
- "Cut to the kidney" - when it is required to set the shoot to grow in the desired direction. The method requires caution. Mistakes will lead to the withering away of the branch. Select a kidney and make an incision half a centimeter above its growth point;
- "Transfer to lateral escape" - nutrients are redirected to the right shoots, providing them with more intensive growth.
Summer pruning tips
Works are carried out from June throughout the summer:
- it is necessary to remove the "tops". These are vertical shoots on which fruits are not formed;
- in July, it is recommended to cut side shoots;
- remove berries, branches with foci of damage by various insects, diseases;
- remove fallen leaves;
- if in the spring the plum was not cut off for some reason, do it in the summer;
- some gardeners postpone plum cutting until June, removing frozen branches and tops. As a result of such actions, the spread of various diseases throughout the garden is reduced. In the fall, there will be more gentle sanitary pruning;
- in August, cut 2/3 of the leaf at the apical leaves. This stimulates the apical buds to mature quickly;
- when pruning young trees in the summer, you need to pay attention to the branches competing with each other and leave one of them in accordance with the shape of the crown;
- in the summer, you can bend the branches, that is, give them a horizontal position;
- extra care should be taken when pruning old trees. It is better not to touch them in the summer if there are no traces of the disease;
- give up summer pruning if the plum bears fruit for the first time;
- branches with a diameter of up to 2.5 cm during summer pruning can not be processed with a pitch;
Experts believe that summer pruning of plum trees stimulates annual growth for those varieties where fruits are formed on the shoots of the second year.
Video: summer pruning of a plum tree
Pruning plum trees in summer helps redirect the flow of nutrients in the right direction. Namely, to the branches on which the fruits are tied. The removal of green vertical branches has a beneficial effect on the fruiting of trees and prolongs their life. By following the recommendations above, even a novice gardener can easily cope with pruning plums in the summer.
When to prune garden trees
Planting a seedling in the ground does not guarantee that the garden will grow lush and productive. All crops grown on the site require constant attention from the owner, regardless of the season.
Pruning fruit trees is one of the main steps in gardening. It allows you to form the correct crown, regulate growth and fruiting. In addition, proper pruning of fruit trees can help prolong their productivity. You will find all the necessary recommendations in our article.
Cherry plum (plum) Soneyka
Cherry plum Soneyka is a hybrid of Belarusian cherry plum selection. A beautiful fruitful tree is popular in country gardens in Belarus and Russia. Consider the characteristics and conditions of its cultivation.
The breeders of the Institute of Fruit Growing of Belarus have created this hybrid variety by pollinating the cherry plum variety Mara with the pollen of diploid plums. Valery Matveev, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, was engaged in its breeding. Cultivated since 2009.
Description of culture
Description of Soneika cherry plum is as follows:
- The tree has the shape of a flattened circle. Its height does not exceed three meters.
- The crown is not very dense, the branches are inclined downward.
- It has oval pointed leaves, white flowers.
- Yellow plums with a red barrel, weighing up to 50 g, sweet, slightly sour.
- Productivity 30-40 kg.
- The pulp is yellow and juicy.
The cherry plum variety is winter-hardy, can be planted in central Russia and Belarus. The photo of Soneika cherry plum presented below allows you to get acquainted with this plant.
Let's consider the main characteristics of the Soneika cherry plum variety.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Cherry plum has good winter hardiness, tolerates frosty winters without losses. Sharp temperature changes in February are dangerous for fruit buds.
As the progenitor of plums, a drought-resistant plant. However, watering will give a higher yield and succulent fruits.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Like a plum, it requires a pollinator to produce fruit, while choosing varieties that bloom at the same time. The best pollinator for Soneika cherry plum is Eastern European plum varieties. It blooms with white flowers in May. The fruits ripen at the end of August.
The variety is fast-growing, high-yielding, up to 40 kg of berries are harvested from one tree. Ripening occurs almost simultaneously, which shortens the harvest time. The first fruits appear two years after planting.
Scope of the fruit
Cherry plum fruits are used fresh. They are well transported and stored for a long time. They are used to prepare jams, compotes, jams, and add to culinary products. It is used in cosmetology for the preparation of creams, shampoos and other cosmetics.
Disease and pest resistance
Hybrid plants have good resistance to harmful insects and diseases. The variety is immunized to clasterosporium disease.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the hybrid variety Soneika cherry plum:
- High productivity.
- Early onset of fruiting.
- The tree is compact.
- Winter hardy.
- Drought tolerant.
- Disease resistant.
The disadvantages include the need to establish supports for the branches strewn with fruits and the presence of other varieties for cross-pollination.
The plant requires certain conditions for good growth and fruiting.
The best time for planting cherry plum is spring, the plant has time for rooting before the onset of cold weather.
Autumn planting of cherry plum is permissible, it should be no later than mid-September, a month before the start of frost. At a later date, the roots will not have time to take root, and the plant may die.
Choosing the right place
Russian plum, cherry plum Soneyka, loves a sunny place protected from northern winds. This can be any part of the garden, except for its northern zone. Low places with stagnant water and close groundwater are unacceptable. Acidic soil should be limed.
What crops can and cannot be planted next to cherry plum
The best neighbors will be stone fruit crops, as well as plants that are suitable for a soil with low acidity. The pear and apple trees growing nearby work poorly.
Selection and preparation of planting material
For planting, one-year and two-year seedlings are used. The root system should consist of 5 main roots, 30 cm long, well developed. You can use grafted plants, they begin to bear fruit faster.
Before planting, the roots are examined, the diseased and damaged ones are removed, the rest are shortened. Their color should be white when cut.
The roots should be saturated with water. They are placed in a solution with disinfectant additives to exclude possible diseases.
The tree is compact, 3 meters are left between the seedlings, 4-5 meters are enough between the rows.
Planting pits are prepared with a depth of 0.8 meters, their width is up to 0.7 m, depending on the fertility of the soil. On poor soils, humus or compost is added to the pit, complex fertilizer is sprinkled. On acidic soils, add ash, lime or dolomite.
On clay soils, drainage is made from crushed stone, brick or coarse sand. If the soil is sandy, add a layer of clay to the bottom of the pit.
The root collar of the cherry plum is not buried, it is left at ground level. This is especially true for grafted seedlings, so that wild growth of the rootstock does not begin to grow and does not drown out cultural shoots.
Follow-up care of the culture
The cultivation of Soneika cherry plum requires compliance with certain rules. Basic requirements for crop care:
- Top dressing.
- Preparing for winter.
- Rodent protection.
Watering is required in spring and summer, up to three times per season. In the dry season, 4 liters are poured under the cherry plum tree. Be sure to water it in September to provide moisture to the root system for the winter.
In the first year, there is enough food introduced into the planting pits. In the future, top dressing is applied in March, in the summer, during the appearance and growth of ovaries. The last dressing in August is needed to lay the buds of the next harvest. It is better to introduce complex compounds, only exclude nitrogen in the fall.
In the fourth year, cherry plum will require the introduction of organic fertilizers, as well as phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. They are added during the autumn loosening of the soil.
In the first year, the crown of the tree is formed. Leave up to 5 skeletal branches. In the future, branches of the second and third order and crown density are formed.
The main pruning of cherry plum and plum is carried out in the spring before the start of sap flow in March, April. Summer pruning can only be sanitary, in which dry and unnecessary branches are removed.
To get a visual idea of the tree pruning process, you can watch the video:
The cherry plum variety Soneyka is winter-hardy, but requires some preparation for winter. Young seedlings are spud and mulched with humus. For them, you need to organize a shelter from rodents. To do this, the trunk is wrapped in burlap, covered with spruce branches.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cherry plum variety Soneyka is resistant to many diseases, but they still exist.
The appearance of brown spots on plum leaves, the formation of holes in them. Further, the disease spreads to fruits and branches. The bark cracks, gum flow begins
Treatment of a tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or with Hom before flowering and after and three weeks before harvesting. Remove plant residues in time
The appearance of a powdery pink bloom on the leaves, drying of the fruits near the plum
Treatment of plants with Bordeaux liquid in spring and autumn, treatment in autumn of trunk circles
Branches darken, leaves dry up and fall off, fruits rot
In the spring, before the buds swell, spraying with a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, in the summer and after harvesting, use a 1% solution
Damages leaves and fruit buds, causes them to fall off
Timely clean the branches from the old bark, in case of illness, use "Fundazol" or "Karate" in the formation of buds
Damages shoots and leaves of plums and cherry plums, after which they dry out
Insecticide treatment of leaves, especially their lower part
Cherry plum Soneika, while retaining the useful qualities of the plum, has a pleasant taste. The hybrid variety is resistant to diseases, has a compact shape. A beautifully blooming tree in early spring will decorate the entire garden.
Reviews about the cherry plum Soneyka indicate that the tree is popular with gardeners.
How to prune cherries correctly
Cherry pruning is a necessary procedure for proper tree formation. Improper branch removal and improper cut maintenance can lead to reduced yields and sometimes even death of the plant.
How to prune cherries in spring for beginners
Spring is a good time to prune cherries. By the end of March, she is recovering sufficiently after winter. As a rule, horizontal branches bear fruit, therefore, to increase yields, cut layers growing vertically are cut. This allows the plant to use its energy to form fruit.
Care for the top of a sweet cherry must be started from the first year of its life. To carry out the procedure, it is recommended to bend the branches and fasten them with ropes, make spacers from small pieces of wood or clamp them with clothespins. In a year, the branches will grow in the right direction.
Summer pruning of cherries
In summer, pruning of cherries (photo of the diagram is attached below) is preventive and cosmetic. It involves the removal of dead branches and excess layers.
Usually summer care is carried out in two stages: before harvest and after. Summer pruning helps the tree recover. Removing excess branches improves air circulation.
Pruning a cherry seedling after planting
Sapling pruning is necessary for the initial formation of the crown. It is at this time that it is important to lay the first tier of skeletal branches, from which the rest will grow. This procedure is carried out after the shoot has strengthened and the first signs of its growth have appeared. It is pruned one month after planting.
Pruning young cherries
Young cherries are regularly pruned for final crown formation during the first four years of their life. The new tiers of the top of the fruit tree are monitored in turn. It is important to correctly carry out thinning pruning so as not to shade the fruit twigs.
Pruning old cherries (pruning from the fifth year of growth)
Pruning old cherries is no longer necessary to form the top (as a rule, by this time the branches are growing in the right direction), but to correct it. Old and dry scions are removed with a saw or garden knife. Rejuvenating pruning is a procedure that ensures the longevity of cherries and stimulates yields.
What to do after pruning
Any circumcision leaves a wound surface from which moisture evaporates.It is also, in fact, an open gateway for all kinds of infections. Small sections can heal on their own, while large areas, from 2.5 cm in diameter, need to be processed.
No matter how sharp the saw or hacksaw used to cut, in any case, the surface after it will not be smooth, so it needs to be cleaned with a sharp garden knife. Then - treat with a special agent designed for wound healing for example, garden varnish or oil-based paint.
You cannot use any other paints besides oil paints - the solvents that make up their composition will have a detrimental effect on the tree, penetrating into its tissues through a fresh cut. To apply the product, use a spatula, brush or cut knot.
The smeared wound begins to heal from the edges, forming a crustal ridge on them, which, after treatment, grows at a rate of 2-3 cm per year, as opposed to 1 cm if it is not treated.
Whatever manipulations with a tree you do, remember that this is a living organism that can be harmed if you do not have enough knowledge. You need to know the processes and laws by which it carries out its life activity and, by interfering with them, to understand what exactly you expect from your intervention. And a tree, like any living creature, will always thank you for your care and give you a rich harvest.
The process of pruning fruit trees has many goals, the main ones of which are: care, activation of growth and development processes, as well as protection from diseases. But the most important task, of course, is to increase the quantity and quality of the crop. However, positive results can be achieved only if the pruning is done technically correctly, with a high-quality garden tool, and most importantly - in a timely manner. The article will focus on the correct pruning of fruit trees.
- When it is necessary to prune the crown of fruit trees
- Fruit tree pruning tools
- Technique for shaping and pruning fruit trees
- Types of pruning fruit trees
- Pruning trees at different times of the year
- Pruning fruit trees in spring
- Summer tree pruning
- Pruning fruit trees in autumn
- Pruning schemes for fruit trees
- Helpful Tips for Pruning Fruit Trees
When it is necessary to prune the crown of fruit trees
For each of the species and age of fruit trees, there is its own - the most suitable period for pruning. The procedure ranges can be conventionally divided into several.
- Autumn-winter... Pruning is carried out immediately after the complete fall of the deciduous cover and the end of the movement of the tree sap. This period is also called rest time. On the one hand, it is believed that this is the most favorable time for tree pruning. But on the other hand, it is during this period, due to the lack of movement of tree sap, that the healing of the cut sites is more difficult. In addition, when pruning in low temperature conditions, you can freeze the shoots in this way, which will damage them and impair the function of fruiting.
- Spring-summer... It starts from the moment the first movement of the tree sap appears - this is the so-called vegetative period, and lasts until the fruit is harvested. This is the best time to graft and prune fruit trees. Unsatisfactory results can be corrected before the onset of the cold season.
In addition to seasonal guidelines, before proceeding with pruning fruit trees, it is worth considering a number of equally important factors, such as:
- site location
- wind speed
- presence of precipitation
- temperature below 0 °
Fruit tree pruning tools
Not only seasonal and weather conditions, but also the quality of the tools are fundamental during the pruning period. The requirements for them are quite simple, they should be as sharp as possible, clean and easy to use. What you may need for trimming.
- Pruner. Refers to a variety of garden shears. In addition to the main requirement - the sharpness of the blades, the tool should be light and convenient to use, since usually cutting one tree takes a fairly long period of time. It is important to pay attention to the action of the ratchet mechanism, it will depend on how much force you have to press on the handles. In addition, the blades should have a small gap, otherwise the young shoots will get stuck in them, which will cause additional work.
- Garden hacksaw... The blades should be well sharpened and have a tapered shape towards the end of the blade. The gaps between the teeth should have shallow cavities for the accumulation of sawdust material. Construction saws are not suitable for pruning fruit trees as they can cause additional damage to the trunk.
- Long secateurs... It differs from the manual version by the presence of a long handle. This shape is perfect for cutting off processes that are slightly higher than human height, without the use of additional tools in the form of a ladder or ladder. There are options with a telescopic tube, which makes it possible to adjust the cutting height.
In the work of pruning trees, additional tools may be needed.
- Chainsaw will speed up the process of cutting massive trunks, especially for mature trees.
- Ladder or stepladder will allow you to form the crown of a fruit tree.
- Overalls, complemented by protective gloves, will eliminate unnecessary injuries during work.
- Glasses will be needed at the moments of cutting, to protect the eyes from sawdust and small chips.
Technique for shaping and pruning fruit trees
Technically speaking, there are three types of tree pruning.
- "To the kidney." This pruning method allows you to set the most correct direction for the growth of the branch. As a rule, only young annual shoots are cut in this way using a cut over the selected bud. During the procedure, the pruning shear blade should be directed towards the branch.
Important: the cut angle should be as close as possible to 45 ° so that the kidney is not "truncated". In addition, an unnecessarily sharp cut must be avoided, in which case the retained kidney will lack nutrients. A too long residual process can dry out and in the future it will have to be completely cut down, which will disrupt the process of crown formation.
- "On the ring." Such pruning is done only with the aim of completely removing one or more branches. The reason may be a violation of the penetration of light into the crown or the wrong direction of the branches. In the latter case, the shoots take up some of the nutrients that can be distributed among the more promising branches in terms of yield. If the shoot is relatively young and its thickness allows, then pruning is done with a pruner, otherwise a garden hacksaw is used.
Note: there are a number of nuances that should not be forgotten when cutting a branch "on a ring". Do not leave an unnecessarily long process and prune flush with the bark. It is considered correct to trim along the outer edge of the ring, which is formed by the influx of bark at the junction of the shoot with the trunk.
- "On the lateral branch". This type of pruning is the least traumatic for fruit trees and retains most of their viable functions. Its direct purpose is considered to be a change in the direction of growth from one shoot to another. There is a complete pruning of incapacitated branches, due to which all the main functions are taken over by the side branches, gradually replacing the main ones.
Types of pruning fruit trees
In addition to various technological aspects of pruning, there are also types of this process that determine the further development of the fruit tree and its yield:
- Formative. All actions are aimed at designing the future crown, as a result, the necessary density and shape should be formed. The best time for such pruning is February, early March. As a result, during the period of active movement of the juice, which begins at the end of March, the fruit tree will be as fruitful as possible. Late formative pruning will cause the plant to stagnate or not yield per se.
Important: correctly designed skeletal (guiding) branches, during the entire growth and development of plants, will serve as a reliable frame, resistant to any stress, which will allow to withstand even the heaviest harvest.
- Regulatory. Suitable for an actively developing tree that requires minimal adjustments. The illumination of the crown and the density of young shoots should be maintained in proper condition. Potentially good period: February-April or August-September. In any of these periods, the fresh cut is quickly tightened and does not release the tree sap.
- Rejuvenating the view is for old trees. The main goal is to restore active fruiting. Pruning time: early spring and late autumn. This pruning is effective in stimulating new shoot growth and restoring the vitality of a wilting tree. Even if the "mature" tree produces a good harvest, it still needs rejuvenating pruning from time to time to awaken the adventitious buds.
- Restorative... Suitable even for beginners in the matter of pruning trees, as it consists in eliminating dried and damaged branches. Even such minor actions will lead to the renewal of the crown of the tree and the activation of its growth and fruiting.
- Sanitary... The task of this type of pruning is to revitalize and heal a fruit tree that has been damaged by various external factors. A similar procedure can be carried out completely at any time of the year, with the exception of active frosts. Shoots infected with parasites, damaged or broken are removed at the root, after which the tool must be carefully processed and the wood disposed of.
Pruning trees at different times of the year
Seasonal pruning has a number of nuances that should be considered in order to avoid harming the fruit tree.
Pruning fruit trees in spring
- Spring is the most productive and successful season for pruning fruit trees. It is important to wait for the period of the final temperature change after winter so that the last frosts pass. It is necessary to trim it strictly until the first buds swell. Dry weather with temperatures above 0 ° is ideal. Pruning fruit trees should be done in the following sequence:
- Pruning begins with older trees. After all, they are the main fruiting composition. And only after that you can cut off young seedlings. The reason lies in the different periods of kidney awakening.
- If apple trees grow on the site, you need to start with them. After all, it is this tree that is most resistant to frost, and if the temperature drops again, this tree will not suffer after pruning, unlike others. But it is better to cut off pear and cherry closer to May.
- For shoots, pruning starts with the least promising. What does it mean? Dry or damaged by frost, as well as insects that intersect with others are shoots that interfere with the normal functioning of the crown.
- Large fruit branches are cut down only by the option: "on the ring". The cut site must be covered with a special solution or wet clay - this way it will tighten faster and will not harm the whole tree.
Summer tree pruning
The process of pruning fruit trees can also be carried out in the summer. The main purpose of such a procedure is only a slight correction concerning branches damaged by frost, if they were not identified in early spring. Indeed, during the period of active flowering, it is much easier to identify flaws.
In addition to cleaning up incapacitated shoots, a number of activities can be carried out during this period.
- Pinning (clothespin) - the process of cutting off the upper part of the branch. The young shoot is easily cut with garden shears or pruning shears.
- Grasshopping is a correction option that is performed when the buds give young shoots and it is enough to break them off. The technique is quite similar to standard pruning, the only difference is that pruning occurs without the intervention of garden tools. Surprisingly, it is this option that favorably affects the tightening of the cliff site, it occurs faster and less painful.
Pruning fruit trees in autumn
- The most favorable period for pruning fruit trees is, of course, autumn. It is thanks to her that the tree is prepared for the extremes of cold temperatures. The most important goal of autumn pruning is sanitization, that is, removing excess dry, painful and damaged shoots. Thanks to such actions, wood pests and microorganisms will not be able to move to the healthy part of the fruit tree.
- Among other things, the autumn pruning of trees allows you to create the most efficient conditions for ventilation and lighting of the crown. And the distribution of tree sap on healthy branches will increase the yield for the next year.
Note: before the onset of cold weather, all large sections must be treated with a special protective compound, this will have a beneficial effect on the speedy healing and preparation for low temperatures. Pruning fruit trees in winter is not recommended.
Pruning schemes for fruit trees
Knowing all the principles and types of pruning fruit trees, it is still difficult to imagine where to start the procedure, especially for beginners in the field of gardening. An approximate plan for pruning a tree can come to the aid of a layman in this matter.
- First of all, it is worth paying attention to the apical shoots - by removing the thin forks of branches in the form of "crow's feet".
- Next, you should get rid of the crossing of the branches, for this you need to cut off the shoots directed towards the soil.
- Particular attention should be paid to the space around the trunk: cut off branches directed towards it and young growth.
- Crown formation is carried out by removing thickening (growing too close) and spinning branches (shoots from dormant buds).
The described method is ideal for annual pruning of a well-developing tree, but the methods of forming young seedlings and old trees have a number of certain differences.
Pruning young seedlings
- From the moment a young seedling is planted in the ground until the beginning of fruiting, the main task will be to form a tree frame from skeletal branches, track the growth of fresh shoots and lay future fruit formations. To ensure all these points, it is necessary to ensure the growth of the crown - evenly in all directions. Therefore, pruning of one-year-old shoots and branches thickening the crown mass is carried out. Actively growing shoots are truncated by 50%, and slower ones by 25%. Thanks to such manipulations, the crown of a young seedling becomes powerful and fruitful after a few years.
- Young seedlings are pruned annually due to their rapid growth. Late autumn is considered the most successful period for pruning them. After leaf fall, all damaged and excess shoots are removed. This not only allows the tree to be prepared for winter, but also to achieve high-quality air exchange and crown lighting.
Pruning fruit trees video
Pruning mature fruit trees
- It is quite easy to form the crown of new plantings, the main thing is to follow all the rules. But as for old fruit trees, then certain stages should be observed.This is due to the fact that the entire crop on such trees, as a rule, is located at the very top of the crown, the fruits are relatively small in size and appear irregularly.
- The painstaking process of revitalizing old fruit trees has been carried out over several years, and consists of the following activities.
- In the first year, the crown is pruned several levels down and only on the south side of the tree. All work should be carried out in order to transfer the main branches to the side branch.
- In the next season, the pruning of the "tops" formed during the previous procedure is mandatory. Otherwise, they will absorb nutrients that are so necessary for the living part of the tree. The removal process is performed "on the ring", while the season does not affect the quality of the procedure.
- In subsequent years, the remaining part of the crown is trimmed, and then cleared from the "wolves".
- The most favorable period for pruning old trees is winter. This is due to the fact that during this period fresh cuts do not rot and pests cannot start in them.
Types and varieties of plums - AGRARIY
Plums are among the popular fruit and berry plants that are successfully grown both on an industrial scale and by private gardeners. To get a decent harvest, you should choose the right variety, as well as adhere to the appropriate features of agricultural technology.
Biological features of plums
Plum (from Latin Prúnus) is a plant from the Rosaceae family, widespread in many countries. The family includes more than two hundred species, which are most often cultivated in the northern temperate regions. A significant part of the representatives belongs to the widely known and demanded fruit crops among gardeners.
Trees can have different growth rates and have simple, lanceolate foliage with denticles at the edges. The flowers are white or pink in color, and have five petals and the same number of sepals. The type of flower arrangement is single or a combination of up to six flowers into umbrella-shaped inflorescences. The fruit is represented by a drupe with a fairly large bone.
Popular plum varieties
The main plum varieties come from several botanical species, including the house plum, blackthorn, thorny plum, Ussuri plum and hybrids.
Early maturing varieties
Growing early maturing varieties allows you to get the earliest harvest, which, in terms of its quality and taste characteristics, is not inferior to mid-ripening fruits that ripen at a later time.
|Variety name||Description||Fruit characteristics||Disease resistance|
|"Renklod Karbyshev"||The originator is the Donetsk Garden Institute. Self-infertile variety. It is used fresh, for canning and obtaining high quality prunes.||Weight up to 50 g, round, red with a slight bluish bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy, sweet, aromatic.||Disease resistance and frost resistance are high enough.|
|"Alyonushka"||Average vigor, pyramidal, erect, average crown density. Shoots are red-brown in color.||Weight up to 35 g, rounded-oval shape. The skin is relatively thin, dark red in color. The pulp is orange in color, medium-dense, juicy, crunchy, with colorless juice.||Foliage and young shoots are prone to aphid damage. Frost resistance up to -25 C.|
|"Red ball"||Average vigor of trees. The crown is rounded, the branches are hanging down. Average thickening of the crown.||Weight up to 45 g, rounded, red with a bluish bloom. The pulp is light yellow, loose, fibrous, sweet and aromatic.||High resistance to defeat by clasterosporium and monilial burn.|
|Early Renklode||The originator is the Institute of Horticulture, Donetsk. The yield is high and stable. The variety is self-fertile. Average vigor. Rounded shape of the crown.||Weight up to 50 g. The color is yellow, with a waxy bloom and orange blush. The pulp is greenish-yellow, firm, sweet with sourness and honey aroma.||High resistance to clasterosporium and monilial burn. Frost-resistant grade.|
|"Eurasia 21"||Vigorous trees with a spreading and multidirectional crown.||Rounded shape, weight up to 35 g, red-burgundy color, with a waxy coating. The pulp is yellowish-orange, juicy, aromatic.||Stable resistance to rot and other diseases. Frost resistance up to -20 ° С.|
Mid-season varieties are extremely popular with gardeners. Compared to early varieties, they have a fuller and richer taste and aroma.
|Variety name||Description||Fruit characteristics||Disease resistance|
|"Belarusian Hungarian"||Trees of medium vigor with an oval-rounded crown. Partial self-infertility.||Weight up to 39 g, rounded, purple with a blue tint. Strong waxy coating. The pulp is orange, dense, sweet and sour.||High resistance to "perforation" and monilial burn.|
|"Renclode Altana"||Great vigor, rounded-oval crown, blunt-pointed leaves, bright green color.||Weight up to 39 g. The shape is round, pinkish-red skin color with a strong waxy coating. The pulp is yellow, fibrous, juicy.||Average frost resistance. Resistance to polystyhomosis, clasterosporium disease, "sharke" is high. Resistance to monilial burn is low.|
|"Souvenir of the East"||The tree is tall, the crown is spreading, the leaves are thin, leathery.||Weight up to 39 g. The shape is round, orange, turning into burgundy. The pulp is yellowish-orange, dense, juicy.||The tendency to defeat clasterosporium or perforated spot.|
|"Voloshka"||Vigorous tree, wide-rounded crown, compact. The variety is self-fertile.||Weight from 31 to 48 g. Oval shape. Irregular dark bluish-violet coloration with mottling. The pulp is yellow-green, juicy, dense, sweet and sour taste.||Average frost resistance. Clasterosporium resistance is insufficient.|
|"Souvenir of the East"||Average vigor. High fruiting rate. Universal use.||Weight up to 41 g. Dark blue skin color. The pulp is yellow, firm, crispy, sweet.||Disease resistance and frost resistance are sufficient.|
Late ripening varieties bear fruit starting from August 25 and up to the middle of the first autumn month. Such varieties do not always have time to fully mature in many regions, therefore they are most often grown in the southern regions.
|Variety name||Description||Fruit characteristics||Disease resistance|
|"The president"||Trees are above average vigor. Productivity from 40 to 70 kg.||Weight up to 49 g, blue skin with a waxy bloom. The pulp is yellow, juicy. Universal application.||Refers to winter hardy. Medium disease resistance.|
|"Hungarian Pulkovskaya"||The tree is tall, with a wide and round, very dense crown. Self-fertile variety.||Weight up to 21 g. The color is red or purple, with an abundant waxy coating. The pulp is amber, yellow, sour-sweet.||Possesses high winter hardiness. Insufficiently resistant to moniliosis.|
|"Vikana"||The tree is small, of weak growth, the crown is drooping, thin.||Weight up to 26 g. The skin is claret, with noticeable subcutaneous punctures and a pronounced waxy bloom. The pulp is light yellow, sour-sweet.||Moderate resistance to various diseases.|
|"Valor Canadian"||A tree of medium vigor with a fairly dense crown.||Weight up to 48 g. The skin is blue-violet with a transition to burgundy color. The pulp is dense, homogeneous. The taste is great.||Possesses resistance to major diseases and good winter hardiness.|
|"Memory of Timiryazev"||The tree is medium in height, with a small trunk and a spreading crown.||Weight 24 g. The shape is oval, yellow skin with tan and light bluish bloom. The pulp is rich amber color, juicy and dense.||Low frost resistance of branches. May be affected by aphids and clotterosporia.|
You can find out more information about plum varieties here.
Plum planting rules
Planting plums, like any other fruit trees, should begin with soil preparation:
- the landing site should be on a hill and well lit
- it is advisable to use areas with light loamy soil for planting
- the groundwater level should be at least 1.5 m to the surface
- in Central Russia, planting is carried out in the spring, and in the southern regions, planting is carried out in the fall
- the distance between planted trees, depending on the strength of growth, should be from 3.5 to 4 m.
- the planting pit should be 80 x 40 cm wide and 50 to 60 cm deep
- for a plant installed in a hole, you need to carefully spread all the roots and drive a stake next to the stem without injuring the root system
- the hole with the root system should be covered with a top layer of soil mixed with compost, superphosphates, wood ash or potassium chloride
- the root collar of the plant should be located 3-5 cm above the ground level.
Plum: variety selection (video)
The seedling should be tied to the stake. A hole is made around the plant for watering the plant at the rate of two buckets for each seedling. It is recommended to mulch the soil around the trunk with peat or humus to maintain moisture.
Features of plum care
The scheme for carrying out activities along the way behind the plum is based on several main features that distinguish this fruit tree from other garden plantings. From the third year of life, the plum needs special attention. Plum has the ability to resume growth in the autumn. and in warm, humid weather, plum trees begin to grow vigorously.
Systematic feeding of plum trees should be carried out taking into account the following recommendations:
- in early spring, it is required to apply a complex of fertilizers with a sufficient content of ammonium sulfate
- acidic soils must be balanced by adding calcium ammonium nitrate, lime or wood ash
- the soil around young plants must be mulched with compost or well-rotted manure
- feeding plum trees with organic matter should be done every two to three years during the autumn digging
- in the autumn period, the plum is especially in need of potash and phosphorus fertilizers
- in the phase of active spring vegetation, it is recommended to feed the trees with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Schedule of feeding plum trees
|Duration of feeding||Recommended fertilizer|
|First decade of May||Dissolve two tablespoons of urea in a bucket of water. Wood consumption is 1 bucket.|
|First decade of June||Dissolve 3 tbsp in a bucket of water. l. nitrophosphate. Wood consumption is 1 bucket.|
|Mid august||Dissolve two tablespoons of superphosphate in a bucket of water. Wood consumption is 1 bucket.|
To increase the yield, foliar dressing can be carried out with a 0.5% urea solution. The number of such dressings should be from two to three per season.
To water one young or medium-sized plum tree, use at least three buckets of water per week. For watering tall and abundantly fruiting plants, you need to increase the amount of water by one and a half times.
The most optimal watering times are in the spring-summer period, when there is an active development of buds, flowering and formation of ovaries. Mulching the soil will reduce moisture evaporation.
In order for the plum tree to have an attractive and easy-to-maintain crown shape, the most important stage of cultivation is to carry out formative pruning. The optimal shape of the crown is a sparse-tiered type.
The stem of the tree should not be higher than 40 cm. At the bottom, no more than 3 branches should be left. On the second tier, you need to leave 2-3 branches. All subsequent tiers must have one branch.
Pruning the crown of a plum tree by year
|First year||After awakening of the kidneys, the stem from the bottom 50 cm is cleared of lateral branches. Skeletal branches are cut in half. The central conductor is cut into a good bud, up to 1.5 m high from the ground. At the end of July, summer pruning of branches is carried out, leaving 20 cm from the trunk. Lateral shoots should be cut to 15 cm per bud. Center conductor - no change.|
|Second year||In March, cut the center conductor by 2/3. In July, the growths on the extensions of the branches are trimmed to a length of no more than 20 cm. The lateral branches with a reference point to the lower bud should be cut to 15 cm. Strong branches are bent and attached to the trunk with twine.|
|Third year||Trim the center conductor in a zigzag pattern to a height of 2.5 meters. Subsequent annual pruning of new growth and overlapping side branches. In July, pruning of lateral shoots to a length of 20 cm and all crossing branches. Incorrectly growing shoots are completely cut off at the top.|
As a result of such pruning, it is possible to form a pyramidal crown on a wide and massive base.
Plum growing rules
Plum is not a very demanding plant. However, in the Northern regions, as well as regions with little snowy winters and sharp temperature changes, it is very important to take timely measures to protect plums from frost, sunburn and pests.
How to properly trim a plum (video)
Protecting trees from frost
In addition to whitewashing, young plum trees from severe frosts help protect use of insulating materials.
Another effective way to protect young plums from frost is bending the branches to the ground, followed by pinning with wooden brackets. A small hut of willow twigs should be made over the bent tree. The structure must be covered with potato tops and tar paper.
Quality sun protection
To protect plum trees from sunburn in the autumn period, whitewashing of boles and forks of skeletal branches with lime mortar. In early spring, the whitewashing activities should be repeated.
In spring, plum trees should be sprayed several times:
- before bud break with remedies for perforated spot, coccomycosis, fruit and gray rot, as well as fungal diseases. In addition, drugs are used to destroy hatching pest larvae.
- in the flowering phase, means are used to destroy spider mites and plum weevil
- after flowering, prophylactic spraying is carried out against putrefactive diseases and plant parasites.
If garden pests are found in the summer, it is necessary to spray not only the affected plants, but also all trees of closely located plantations.
Plum breeding methods
Plum multiplies quite easily in several ways, which allows you to get a full-fledged planting material on your own.
Vegetative tree propagation
Most often, plum propagates vegetatively:
- Graft. On a winter-hardy seedling stock, cuttings cut from a plum tree should be grafted, which must be healthy and of high quality.
- Cuttings. Dig out the roots of the plum at a distance of 1.0-1.5 m from the trunk. The dimensions of the root cutting should be about 15 cm with a thickness of 1.5 cm. The cuttings should be planted in the spring in an inclined or vertical direction.
- Root shoots. In the fall, the root connecting the mother plant with the offshoot should be chopped off, and in the spring, such processes with roots must be dug up and planted in a new permanent place.
Seed propagation of a tree
Seeds should be sown in the autumn before winter or in the last decade of April. Seed material should be washed, dried and stratified before planting.This method of reproduction is convenient, if necessary, to obtain seedlings for the stock.
Diseases and pests of plum
Plum trees and fruits are often welcome prey for many pests. In addition, a significant part of the most popular varieties do not have sufficient resistance to most diseases.
|Name of the disease or pest||Prevention and treatment measures|
|Moth||Using burlap girdling of trunks, digging the soil, manual collection of caterpillars after harvesting.|
|Leaf roll||Collection of crawling butterflies at the oviposition stage. The most effective use of spraying with fungicides in early spring.|
|Plum sawfly||High-quality digging of the soil, before flowering, shaking off sawflies on rags and destruction. Use of preventive spraying.|
|Unpaired silkworm||Detection and destruction of oviposites with kerosene treatment. Preventive treatment.|
|Marsupial disease||Spring spraying with 3% Bordeaux liquid.|
|Hole spot||Removal of affected shoots in the autumn, spraying with 1% Bordeaux mixture.|
|Monoliosis||Collection and destruction of fallen leaves, destruction of affected shoots and fruits. Double spraying with 3% Bordeaux liquid.|
Despite the fact that the plum comes from Asia, at present, thanks to its early maturity, high productivity and excellent taste, this fruit tree is cultivated almost everywhere. Plum has many useful properties and is an excellent raw material for various preparations and dishes.
How to care for plums (video)
As you know, some types of cherries and plums have a lot in common and are able to interbreed with each other. Sometimes this happens by chance, and the hybrids obtained in this way should theoretically also have to be recognized as cherry plums, however, the cultural cherry plum was bred on purpose and has its own special set of qualities and properties, its brothers that were accidentally born are usually called differently, and their features can be unpredictable.
Vishnesliva was created by crossing sand and felt cherries (belonging, as you know, to a special group of "micro cherries") with American, Chinese or Ussuri plums (these plums have a diploid, that is, a double set of chromosomes). The very first of them were obtained in the USA as a hybrid of two American crops - sand cherry and American plum.
Later, other hybrids appeared with similar properties and therefore attributed to the same culture. At first, varieties of American selection were imported to Russia (in Ukraine, cherry plum is not widely distributed), but later their own domestic ones were created.
As for what exactly cherry plums are, there is still no consensus among experts. In some literary sources, they are considered among micro-cherries, in others - among the so-called group of American and East Asian plums (in the USSR, by the way, when assessing the productivity of fruit crops, cherry plum yields were officially considered as a component of the total harvest of various plums, not cherries).
Cherry Sliva has the characteristics of both parental species. This is a small tree (sometimes a bush) up to 2 m tall. The leaves are more similar to those of sand cherry or felt cherry. The fruits of most varieties, at first glance, outwardly more like cherries, only very large (average weight of cherry plum fruit - 12-15 g) and often having a "plum" dark blue color with a pronounced waxy bloom.
Their characteristic pungent aftertaste is characteristic of both sand cherries and thorns, however, in terms of the chemical composition of plum, they still have a little more. Early maturity is also inherited from micro-cherries - cherry plum begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year, like felt and sand cherries. But other biological features are mostly characteristic of plums rather than cherries.
The fact that cherry plums are nevertheless closer to plums than to cherries is evidenced by the fact that they do not interbreed with real cherries (unlike micro cherries), moreover, they are incompatible with them when vaccinated. But, like felt cherries, they can interbreed not only with almost all plums, but also with peaches and apricots.
Unlike micro-cherries, cherry plum blossoms rather late, which allows its flowers to safely escape from the effects of spring frosts, and the damping of the root collar is observed somewhat less often (although in general it is also typical for the culture). The trees are very hardy.
The Urals and Siberia are the most favorable in terms of climate for cultivation of cherry plums, with winters, albeit severe, but without thaws. In the central European regions of Russia, its cultivation is difficult due to the high probability of infection with moniliosis and clasterosporia and the already mentioned damping off of the root collar, although these difficulties can be overcome by choosing a suitable stock (blackthorn, cherry plum) and using special agricultural techniques.
Cherry plum does not tolerate waterlogged soils.
Cherry sliva is self-infertile, both other varieties of the same culture and late-flowering varieties of sand cherry can serve as pollinators for it (they differ too much in flowering dates with the biologically compatible felt cherry).
The value of culture
Cherry plum is prized primarily because it can be grown in regions unsuitable for the cultivation of other stone fruits.
Due to the tart taste of fruits characteristic of most varieties, fruits are often used fresh, and not for processing, they can be used for making jam and canning.
Cherry sliva is very decorative throughout the growing season and can be used in hedges. Some varieties of cherry plums retain their beauty even in winter due to the bright, reddish color of the shoots.
Dessert Far Eastern. A variety of Russian selection. A low tree with an average height of 2.5 m. Begins to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting. Fruits are large (weight up to 18 g), broadly oval, red-violet with a gray waxy bloom, the pulp is juicy, sweet, aromatic taste is recognized as one of the best among cherry plums.
Miner. Variety of Canadian selection. A natural semi-dwarf, the tree is prone to independent formation (in addition, it is easy to give it a creeping shape). Begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year after planting, then annually. The fruit, both in color and in taste, is a cross between a cherry and a plum. The yield is low.
New. A variety of Russian selection. A medium-sized bush with a spreading crown, reddish shoots and decorative shiny leathery leaves. The fruits are medium or small (average weight 10 g), dark purple with a bluish bloom, the flesh is juicy, sour-sweet with a slightly noticeable tart aftertaste. Very winter hardy variety. It is often used as a rootstock for plums.
Opata. A variety of American selection, was one of the first to be created. It may look like a tree with a low stem, and like a spreading bush, the crown is sparse. Begins to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting. The best pollinator is Sapa. Fruits are large (weight up to 15 g), spherical, dark blue (almost black) juicy flesh. The yield is high.
Sapa. American variety, one of the first. It can look like a tree with a low stem, and like a spreading bush up to 2 m tall, the crown is sparse. Begins to bear fruit in the 2nd year after planting. The best pollinator is the Opata variety. Fruits are of medium size and smaller (average weight up to 9 g), spherical, dark blue flesh is juicy, fruits are more astringent than those of Opata. The yield is above average.
Cisten. The semi-dwarf is considered the most decorative of the varieties. The taste of the fruit is mediocre. The yield is high.
Cheresoto. A variety of American selection. It can look like a tree with a low stem, and like a spreading bush. Begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year after planting. Fruits (weight up to 13 g) spherical flesh is juicy, but too tart in taste, so the fruits are used mainly for processing. Insufficient winter hardiness.
Cherry sliva grows best on sandy loam and loamy soils, clay soils are the most undesirable option for it. A high groundwater table is unacceptable for it. The ideal option is to place it on a hill or slope.
She is quite light-requiring, but she can put up with a little shading.
Cherries can be propagated by layering, grafting and green cuttings. It can be inoculated by budding with an "eye" on the shoots of its other varieties or on the seedlings of cherry plum, plum and blackthorn.
Cherry plum cuttings (horizontal) take root very well, the same goes for rooting of green cuttings. Even ordinary branches dug into the ground can give shoots. Young plants obtained from cuttings can serve as a good stock for varietal plums.
Landing scheme, landing pit size
The distance between the tall and coarse varieties is 4 x 5 m, between the low-growing ones - 3 x 4 m. The depth of the pit for the coppice and tall varieties is 80 cm, the diameter is 100 cm for the low-growing ones - 40 and 50 cm, respectively.
The soil around the growing cherry plum is cultivated in autumn to a depth of 15 cm in the middle of the row and 10-12 cm near trees on heavy soils during the growing season, it is desirable to carry out 3-4 additional loosening (to a depth of 8 cm).
There are no clear fertilization schemes (more precisely, there are dozens of them), but we must remember that cherry plum is responsive to feeding.
Cherry sliva is both drought-resistant and moisture-loving, but does not tolerate excess moisture. During the growing season, if possible, it is necessary to maintain a constant moderate soil moisture (with prolonged drought, the fruits become smaller). By the beginning of fruiting, watering of young trees should be stopped.
Pruning, crown shaping
Cherry lilies can be grown as a bush or low-stemmed tree, but most varieties usually do not need targeted crown formation. In regions with very harsh winters, it can be given a creeping shape (horizontal cordon, see Apple tree). Only healthy pruning (removal of weak and damaged branches) is really a must for cherry plums.
For old trees, rejuvenating pruning is also carried out, according to the general scheme for all stone fruits.
The best time for pruning cherry plums is March - early April.
Harvesting and storage
Harvested when the bulk of the fruit acquires the main (mature) color.